Article | Confero: Essays on Education, Philosophy and Politics | Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan

Title:
Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan
Author:
Shoko Yoneyama: Department of Asian Studies, School of Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, University of Adelaide, Australia
DOI:
10.3384/confero.2001-4562.150628
Read article:
Full article (pdf)
Year:
2015
Volume:
3
Issue:
2
Pages:
120-160
No. of pages:
41
Publication type:
Article
Published:
2015-08-19


This paper identifies a lacuna in the existing paradigms of bullying: a gap caused by the frame of reference being largely limited to the highly industrialized societies of the ‘west’: Europe, North America and Oceania. The paper attempts to address this gap by presenting research developed in Japan. In Japan, sociological discourse on school bullying, i.e. the analysis of institutional factors relevant to understanding bullying was established relatively early, as was the epistemology now referred to as the second paradigm of bullying. The paper attempts to integrate the research strengths of Japan with this new trend in bullying research, with the view of incorporating ‘non-western’ research traditions into mainstream discourse on bullying. It introduces a typology of school bullying: Types I&II, and discusses 1) hierarchical relationships in schools, focusing on corporal punishment and teacher-student bullying, and 2) group dynamics surrounding bullying. The paper illustrates how bullying among students is entwined with various aspects of schools as social institutions. It argues that school bullying may represent a state of anomie in both formal and informal power structures in schools, which have become dysfunctional communities unable to deal with bullying, while at the same time it can be students’ way of compensating their sense of alienation and disconnectedness from school.

Volume 3, Issue: 2, Article 5, 2015

Author:
Shoko Yoneyama
Title:
Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan:
DOI:
10.3384/confero.2001-4562.150628
References:
  • Akiba, Motoko. "Nature and correlates of Ijime—Bullying in Japanese middle school." International Journal of Educational Research 41.3 (2004): 216-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijer.2005.07.002
  • Bauman, Zygmunt, Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity, 2000.
  • Beaven, Elizabeth. Exploring Things Seen and Unseen: Students Speak of Waldorf Education. University of California. Doctor of Education thesis, 2011.
  • Beck, Ulrich. World Risk Society. Cambridge: Polity, 1999.
  • Bibou-Nakou, Ioanna, Tsiantis, John, Assimopoulos, H., Chatzilambou, Persa, and Giannakopoulou, Dimitra. "School factors related to bullying: a qualitative study of early adolescent students." Social Psychology of Education 15 (2012): 125-145. DOI: 10.1007/s11218-012-9179-1
  • Chan, Heng Choon Oliver, and Wong, Dennis Sing Wing. "The overlap between school bullying perpetration and victimization: Assessing the psychological, familiar, and school factors of chinese adolescents in Hong Kong." Journal of child and Family Studies (2015): Published online: 21 January 2015. DOI: 10.1007/s10826-015-0125-7
  • Doi, Takayoshi. Tomodachi jigoku: Kuki o yomu jidai no sabaibaru [The hell of friendship: Surviving the read-the-vibes generarion]. Tokyo: Chikuma shobo, 2008.
  • Ellwood, Constance, and Davies, Bronwyn. "Violence and the moral order in contemporary schooling: a discursive analysis." School Bullying: New Theories in Context. Eds. Robin Schott and Dorte Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. 81-96. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707.006
  • Farrington, David. "Understanding and Preventing Bullying". Crime and Justice 17 (1993): 381-458. DOI: 10.1086/449217
  • Fujiwara, Tomomi. "Kuki yomi to kashita kyoshi tachi [Teachers who turned to be reading the vibes]." Chuokoron. Tokyo: Chuokoron, 2006: 30-31.
  • Galloway, David, and Roland, Erling. Is the direct approach to reducing bullying always the best? Bullying in Schools: How Successful Can Interventions Be? Eds. Peter K. Smith, Debra Pepler, and Ken Rigby. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2004. 37-54. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511584466.004
  • Giddens, Anthony. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.
  • Goodman, Roger, Imoto, Yuki, and Toivonen, Tuukka. A Sociology of Japanese Youth, London & New York: Routledge, 2012.
  • Hansen, Helle, Henningsen, Inge, and Kofoed, Jette. "When classroom culture tips into bullying." School Bullying. New theories in context. Eds. Robin Schott and Dorte Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. 267-298. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707.015
  • Hata, Masaharu. "Ijime taisaku to sono koka" [Counter measure to bullying and its effects]. Ijime no kokusai hikaku kenkyu [International comparative studies of bullying]. Ed. Yohji Morita. Tokyo: Kaneko shobo, 2001. 123-144.
  • Hirai, Yuta. "Taibatsu jittai chosa no arikata o kanageru [Reflection on the current state of surveys on corporal punishment]" Rippo to chosa [Legislation and Research] 12. 347 (2013): 102-111.
  • Horton, Paul. "School bullying and social and moral orders." Children and Society 25 (2011a): 268-277. DOI: 10.1111/j.1099-0860.2011.00377.x
  • Horton, Paul. School Bullying and Power Relations in Vietnam. (Linköping Studies in Arts and Science No. 541). Linköping: Linköping University, 2011b.
  • James, Deborah, Lawlor, Maria, Courteny, Pat, Flynn, Ann, Henry, Bernie, and Murphy, Niamh. "Bullying behaviour in secondary schools: What roles do teachers play?" Child Abuse Review 17 (2008): 160-173. DOI: 10.1002/car.1025
  • Japan Federation of Barr Association (JFBA). Current State of the Rights of the Child in Japan by the United Nations, Tokyo. 2011.
  • Junger-Tas, Josine. "The Netherlands." The Nature of School Bullying. Eds. Peter Smith, Yohji Morita, Josine Junger-Tas, Dan Olweus, Richard Catalano, and Philip Slee. London & New York: Routledge, 1999. 205-223.
  • Lucas-Molina, Beatriz, Williamson, Ariel, Pulido, Rosa, and Pérez-Albéniz, Alicia. "Effects of teacher-student relatinships on peer harassment:  a multilevel study." Psychology in the Schools 52.3(2015): 298-315. DOI: 10.1002/pits.21822
  • McCormack, Gavan. The Emptiness of Japanese Affluence. London & New York: M.E.Sharpe, 1998.
  • MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). Taibatsu no jittai haaku ni tsuite [Comprehensive survey of corporal punishment] (The second report). 2013.
  • MEXT. Gakko ni okeru ijime mondai ni taisuru kihonteki ninshiki to torikumi no pointo [School bullying: basic understanding and guiding principles]. 2014.
  • Miller, Aaron. "Taibatsu: From educational solution to social problem to marginalized non-issue." A Sociology of Japanese Youth. Eds. Roger Goodman, Yoki Imoto and Tuukka Toivonen. London and New York: Routledge. 2012. 81-97.
  • Miller, Aaron, and Nakazawa, Atsushi. "Who safeguards the child in Japanese sports?" Safeguarding, Child Protection and Abuse in Sport. Eds. Melanie Lang, and Mike Hartill. New York: Routledge, 2015. 133-140.
  • Miyadai, Shinji. Sefuku shojo tachi no sentaku [Choice of school uniform girls]. Tokyo: Kodansha, 1994.
  • Morita, Yohji. "Bullying as a contemporary behaviour problem in the context of increasing social privatization in Japan." Prospects - Quarterly Review of Education 26.2 (1996): 311-329.
  • Morita, Yohji, and Kiyonaga, Kenji. Ijime: Kyoshitsu no yamai [Bullying: Pathology in Classroom]. Tokyo: Kaneko Shobo, 1986.
  • Morita, Yohji, Soeda, Haruo, Soeda, Kumiko, and Taki, Mitsuru. "Japan." The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. Eds. Peter Smith, Yohji Morita, Josine Junger-Tas, Dan Olweus, Richard Catalano, and Philip Slee. London & New York: Routledge, 1999. 309-323.
  • Morita, Yohji. Ijime to wa nanika: kyoshitsu no mondai, shakai no mondai [What is bullying: A problem of classroom and society.] Tokyo: Chuko shinsho, 2010.
  • Mullis, Ina, Martin, Michael, Foy, Pierre, and Arora, Alka. TIMSS2011 International Results in Mathematics. Massachusetts and Amsterdam, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College and International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). 2012.
  • Mullis, Ina, Martin, Michael, Gonzalez, Eugenio, and Chrostowski, Steven. TIMSS2003 International Mathematics Report. Massachusetts, TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center, Lynch School of Education, Boston College, 2004.
  • Naito, Asao. Ijime no shakai riron [Social theory on bullying]. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo, 2001.
  • Naito, Asao. Ijime gaku no jidai [The era of bullying study]. Tokyo: Kashiwa shobo, 2007.
  • OECD. Education at a Glance. 2004.
  • Olweus, Dan. Bullying in School. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.
  • Olweus, Dan. "Norway."  The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. Eds. Peter Smith, Yohji Morita, Josine Junger-Tas, Dan Olweus, Richard Catalano, and Philip Slee. London & New York: Routledge, 1999. 28-48.
  • Rigby, Ken.  Bullying in Schools. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research, 1996.
  • Rigby, Ken. "Attitudes and beliefs about bullying among Australian school children." The Irish Journal of Psychology 18 (1997): 202-220. DOI: 10.1080/03033910.1997.10558140
  • Rigby, Ken. Children and Bullying: How Parents and Educators Can Reduce Bullying at School. Oxford: Blackwell, 2008.
  • Rigby, Ken, and Slee, Phillip. "Australia." The Nature of School Bullying: A Cross-national Perspective. Eds. Peter Smith, Yohji Morita, Josine Junger-Tas, Dan Olweus, Richard Catalano, and Philip Slee. London & New York: Routledge. 1999. 324-339.
  • Rivers, Ian, and Soutter, Alison. "Bullying and the Steiner school ethos: A case study analysis of a group-centred educational philosophy." School Psychology International 17 (1996): 359-377. DOI: 10.1177/0143034396174005
  • Rohlen, Thomas. Japans High Schools. London: University of California Press, 1983.
  • Schott, Robin. "The social concept of bullying: philosophical reflections on definitions." School Bullying. New theories in context. Eds. Robin Schott and Dorte Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2014. 21-46. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707.004.
  • Schott, Robin, and Søndergaard, Dorte. "Introduction: New approaches to school bullying." School Bullying. School Bullying. New theories in context. Eds. Robin Schott and Dorte Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014. 1-17. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707.002
  • Smith, Peter. Understanding School Bullying: Its Nature and Prevention Strategies. London: Sage Publications, 2014.
  • Søndergaard, Dorte. "Social exclusion anxiety: Bullying and the forces that contribute to bullying amongst children at school." School Bullying. School Bullying. New theories in context. Eds. Robin Schott, and Dorte Søndergaard. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2014, 47-80. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9781139226707.005
  • Suzuki, Sho. Kyoshitunai (sukuuru) Kaasuto [School caste], Kobunsha shinsho, 2012.
  • Taki, Mitsuru. Ijime o sodateru gakkyu tokusei [Classroom characteristics which cultivate ijime]. Tokyo: Meiji tosho, 1996.
  • Taki, Mitsuru "Evidence-based intervention against bullying" Kokuritsu Kyoiku Seisaku Kenkyusho kiyo [National Institute for Educational Policy Resaerch Research Bulletin] 136 (2007): 119-135.
  • Taki, Mitsuru. "Relations among bullying, stresses, an stressors: A longitudinal and comparative survey among countries." Handbook of Bullying in Schools. New York and London: Routledge. 2010. 151-162.
  • Toivonen, Tuukka, and Imoto, Yuki. "Making sense of youth problmes." A sociology of Japanese youth. Eds. Roger Goodman, Yuki Imoto, and Tuukka Toivonen. London and New York: Routledge, 2012. 1-29.
  • United Nations. Report of the Committee on the Rights of the Child General Assembly Official Records Fifty-fifth Session Supplement No.41 (A/55/41). New York, 2010.
  • Weller, James. Abrasive Teachers and Principal Response: A Mixed-methods Explaration of Administrative Decisions Regarding Teachers Who Bully Students. PhD thesis. School of Education. Michigan, Andrews University, 2014.
  • Williams, Brad, and Yoneyama, Shoko. "Japans education system: Problems and prospects in the post-industrial age." Japan in Decline: Fact or Fiction. Eds. Purnendra Jain, and Brad Williams, Global Oriental, 2011. 171-189. DOI: 10.1163/ej.9781906876371.i-230.71
  • Yoneyama, Shoko. The Japanese High School: Silence and Resistance. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.
  • Yoneyama, Shoko. "Student Discourse on Tokokyohi (School Phobia/ Refusal) in Japan: Burnout or Empowerment?" British Journal of Sociology of Education, 21.1 (2000): 77-94. DOI: 10.1080/01425690095171
  • Yoneyama, Shoko. "Holistic approaches to bullying." Learning Learning 14.1 (2007): 29-36.
  • Yoneyama, Shoko. "The era of bullying: Japan under neoliberalism." The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 1-3-09 (December 31, 2008).
  • Yoneyama, Shoko, and Naito, Asao. "Problems with the Paradigm: The school as a factor in understanding bullying (with special reference to Japan)." British Journal of Sociology of Education 24.3 (2003): 315-330. DOI: 10.1080/01425690301894
  • Yoneyama, Shoko, and Rigby, Ken. "Bully / Victim Students and Classroom Climate." Youth Studies Australia 25.3 (2006): 34-41.
  • Yoneyama, Shoko. (in press). "Manabi yokereba subete yoshi: Seto no shiten de kangaeru shutaina kyoiku no gakushu kankyo to gakko shihon [All’s well that is learned well: Student experiences of the Waldorf Steiner school capital and learning environment]". Sekai no orutanatibu kyoiku [Alternative education in the world]. Ed. Yoshiyuki Nagata. Seori Shobo: Tokyo, 2015.
  • Yoshida, Atsuhiko. Horisutikku Kyoikuron [Theory of holistic education], Tokyo: Nihon hyoron sha, 1999.
  • Volume 3, Issue: 2, Article 5, 2015

    Author:
    Shoko Yoneyama
    Title:
    Theorizing School Bullying: Insights from Japan:
    DOI:
    10.3384/confero.2001-4562.150628
    Note: the following are taken directly from CrossRef
    Citations:
  • Nick Mavroudis, Pagona Bournell & Yvonne Xian-han Huang (2016). The role of drama in education in counteracting bullying in schools. Cogent Education, 3(1): . DOI: 10.1080/2331186X.2016.1233843
  • Export in BibTex, RIS or text